After reading this article, you will get complete knowledge about all the methods of job analysis with their advantages and advantages used by organizations to investigate the task, duties, and responsibilities necessary to do a job.
► What is Job Analysis in HRM?
Job analysis refers to the process of collecting information related to roles, responsibilities, and operations of a particular job and such information is very crucial for the preparation of job description and job specification.
A job analysis is concerned with examining and understanding the role or position itself and employee performance. The complete study of the job not only helps in understanding what activities are performed, and what skills are required for performing the job but also helps in creating new standards for job roles.
► Methods of Job Analysis
- Interview Method
- Observation Method
- Questionnaire Method
- Critical incident
- Checklist Method
- Technical Conference Method
- Diary or Record Method
All important methods of job analysis are explained one by one in detail with their advantages and disadvantages below.
✔ 1. Interview – Methods of Job Analysis
The interview method is one of the basic and perhaps most important methods for job analysis. In the interview method, a job analyst directly interviews the job holder and asks questions regarding the various jobs performed by them for the collection of data.
The interview should be structured and the interviewer or job analyst must be trained in proper interviewing techniques. It is used as a technique for comparing the data collected by the analyst through observation or a questionnaire.
This method helps the interviewer know many things about the employee what an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities, what kind of working style he or she has, what problems face by them, the use of particular skills and techniques while performing a job or what changes he or she wants in his job.
- This method is very well known and everyone is familiar with it.
- Through interviews job, analysts or interview examine both the mental and physical requirements of the job.
- It provides an accurate result if caution all perform.
- It is a very time-consuming method.
- There may be high chances of biases on the part of both job analysts and employees.
- Questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided otherwise they do not reflect the true picture of the job.
✔ 2. Observation
In this method, an analyst carefully observes the worker doing the job and records all his or her performed tasks, responsibilities, duties, methods, ability to handle challenges and risks involved in the job, and skills used by workers to perform his or her duties.
The observation method is the most reliable technique for getting information regarding the job. It used three techniques for data collection and analysis.
- Direct observation
- Work and Motion Analysis Methods
- Critical Incident Technique
- It is a very simple method.
- Data collected through direct observation is genuine.
- It helps to gather information for the job which is the repetitive nature of the task.
- Analysts required proper training which means additional costs.
- It is very difficult to observe the mental ability required to perform the job.
- Every person has his or her own way of observing things so a person can interpret the same thing in a different way.
✔ 3. Questionnaire – Methods of Job Analysis
This is the widely used method where a detailed questionnaire is prepared by the job analyst and distributed among the workers. The employee after filling questionnaire returned to the supervisor or job analyst who sometimes makes the required and necessary corrections in the information submitted by the employees for analysis.
A good questionnaire must cover all job-related aspects and provide effective and complete information related to the job. Therefore, great care should be taken while framing questions for different grades of employees.
In order to get a genuine answer related to the job, management should communicate it to the employee that information collected through a questionnaire will be used for their own good otherwise employees feel skeptical about diving the answers.
- This technique is highly economical
- It saves a lot of time because it covers a large number of job holders at a time.
- Data collected through questionnaires is easy to analyze.
- Sometimes the answer of the question is too vague.
- This method also suffers a lot from personal biases.
- If it is not done properly, then it led to a wastage of time, money, and human resources
- Sometimes employees do not complete the questionnaire because they are unable to understand the questions.
Also Read : What is Job Satisfaction?
✔ 4. Critical Incident
In this method, the job analyst asks job holders about their past experiences related to the job. The incident so collected is analyzed and classified according to the job areas they describe. The job requirement becomes clear, once the analyst draws the line between the effective and ineffective behavior of workers on the job. This method is also time-consuming and job analysis requires a high degree of skills to analyze the content of the description given by the worker.
- This method help in finding the true or accurate nature of the job.
- It clearly highlights the challenges and risks faced while performing the job.
- It helps in finding what kind of emotional and mental ability is required while performing the job.
- It is a very costly method.
- It is a very time-consuming method.
- Job analysis requires a high degree of skills to analyze the incident narrated by the worker.
✔ 5. Checklist
The checklist method of job data collection is almost similar to the questionnaire method in many but there is a difference in that the questionnaire method has a subjective answer whereas the checklist method has an answer in the form of yes or no. The job-holder is asked to tick the questions that are related to his job.
Once the checklist is prepared by the job analyst with the help of superiors and experts then it is sent to the job holder and the information is tabulated to obtain the job-related data.
- It reduces the ambiguity and vagueness in the answer
- Data is easy to quantifiable
- A fast method for data analysis
- The method is costly and therefore, is not suitable for small organizations.
✔ 6. Diary or Record method
In this method job, the holders or personnel department maintains a detailed record of the activities, facts, and figures related to the job holder. The analyst collects the information from the record maintained by the personnel department
- Written Document
- Real-Time Updation
- It is a very time-consuming process.
- Data recording should need high accuracy.
✔ 7. Technical Conference Method
In this method, a conference is conducted and various experts and supervisors are invited who possess great knowledge about a job and discussion among them provides details information about the job.
- Get a deep insight into the job
- it is a very costly method for the collection of data for job analysis.
- There is no participation of employees or workers.