What is Job Analysis? Meaning, Definition, Process, Method

One of the most important functions of HRM is to do a job analysis. Due to the dynamic nature of the business environment, it becomes very crucial for an HR manager to regularly do a job analysis. Job A helps in the identification of job duties, the skills, abilities, equipment, and tool required to do the job.

After reading this article, you will get complete insight about:

  • What are Job Analysis, its meaning, and definition
  • What are Job Ana. and job specification
  • Process of Job Ana.
  • Methods of Job Ana.
  • Importance of Job Ana.

► What is Job Analysis in HRM?

Job analysis refers to the process of collecting information related to roles, responsibilities, and operations of a particular job and such information is very crucial for the preparation of job description and job specification.

Analysis of Jobs is concerned with examining and understanding the role or position itself and employee performance. The complete study of the job not only helps in understanding what activities are performed, and what skills are required for performing the job but also helps in creating new standards for job roles.

◉ Job Analysis Meaning

  • In simple words job analysis is defined as a systematic process of exploring the activities within the job which is used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountability of a job.
  • Job analysis is a systematic process of identifying and reporting essential information relating to the nature of a particular job.

Job Analysts or HR managers determine the tasks should perform on the job, and what kind of skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities are required by the job holder to successfully perform his or her duty.

Definition of Job Analysis

“Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job descriptions and job specifications.” – Edwin B. Flippo 

“Job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job.” – Stephen P. Robbins

“A job analysis is a collection of tasks that can be performed by a single employee to contribute to the production of some product or service provided by the organization. Each job has certain ability requirements (as well as certain rewards) associated with it. It is the process used to identify these requirements.” – Herbert G. Hereman

Also Read : What is Job Satisfaction?

► Process of Job Analysis

The steps involved in the process of J. Analysis are-

  1. Define the objective of job analysis
  2. Select the representative position
  3. Gathering and collecting information related to a job
  4. Checking accuracy and processing the information related job
  5. Prepare job description
  6. Prepare job specification

Components of Job Analysis

The process of Job Ana. results in the gathering of two sets of data. or sometimes we call the component job of analysis

  • Job Description
  • Job Specification

 Job Description

A job description is defined as a document that provides information about the duties, responsibilities, and functions of a specific job in an organization.

Generally, the job description consists of the following items –

  1. Job title
  2. Job Summary
  3. Salary and pay
  4. Job location
  5. Duties to perform
  6. Machine, tools, equipment
  7. Working conditions and job hazards

 Job Specification

A job specification is a statement that tells about what qualifications, personality traits, skills, etc. are required by an individual to perform the job.

  1. Education
  2. Special job-related technical, physical, and judgemental skills
  3. Experience required
  4. Training required
  5. Communication skills
  6. Leadership skill

► Method of Job Analysis

The various popular methods used for J. Analysis are given below-

  • Observation method
  • Interview method
  • Questionnaire method
  • Checklist method
  • Technical conference method

✔ Observation Method

The observation method is a very common method that job analysts used very often. In this method job, analysts carefully observe the job holder’s work and try to identify what and how he or she does his or her task, how much time he or she takes to complete his or her task, and record finding which help in job analysis.

✔ Interview Method

It is one of the important and most widely used methods of job analysis. In this, the job analyst interviews the job holder and his or her superior so that they get detailed aspect of information related to the job’s nature, responsibilities, duties, tasks, and accountability. The interviewer records the answer given by the interview.

✔ Questionnaire Method

In this method of J.A., the job analyst prepares a structured questionnaire with question-related about all aspects of a particular job and when the job holder filled the questionnaire, it provides enough data for the purpose of job analysis.

✔ Checklist Method

The checklist method is also similar to a questionnaire but in the checklist, all question has two option “yes” or “No” and the checklist should contain all those questions which offer relevant information related to the concerned job.

When a checklist is prepared by a job analyst or specialist then it is sent to the job holder who will answer these questions.

✔ Technical Conference Method

In this method, a conference is conducted to which superiors and experts are invited. These experts have a lot of knowledge about the concerned job and discussions with them provide various kinds of details about the job.

► Importance of Job Analysis

  • It is very fruitful in the manpower planning of an organization.
  • It helps in determining how many, and what type of employees organizations need in the future.
  • It aids in the recruitment and selection of the right person for the right job.
  • It helps in the assessment of employees’ training and development needs.
  • It helps in analyzing the relative worth of a job i.e job evaluation.
  • It helps in determining the wage, salary, and remuneration as per the job role.
  • It clearly defines the role and responsibility that a person performs for a particular job role.
  • Understanding of job role also helps identify the danger in performing the job
  • It helps in taking corrective safety and health measure to minimize the danger on the job.